The following outline is a summary of Rav Yosef Ote's daily Hebrew Halacha class between Mincha and Ma'ariv at Hovevei.
The first rule of kashering is safety! Kashering utensils involves burning hot materials and boiling water, so please remember to be careful!
Regarding kashering utensils, the general rule is “כבולעו, כך פולטו”, meaning that we kasher a utensil using the same level of heat with which the utensil is used to cook. Metal and glass utensils may be kashered. Frying pans can also be kashered through the process of hag'ala, immersing the utensil in boiling hot water or by applying a flame to the inside of the frying pan (Teflon frying pans should not be kashered).
Metal utensil must be totally clean and dry. If the utensil was used for cooking, serving or eating hot Chametz, wait twenty-four hours. After twenty-four hours have passed, the utensil should be fully immersed in a pot of continuously boiling water (it does not have to all go in at the same time). If you realize that the pot was accidentally used within the last twenty-four hours, some detergent or soap should be added (to פוגם the טעם). The water does not have to spill over the edges of the pot but should be continuously boiling even when the vessel is immersed. Silverware or cutlery made of two parts (a handle and a blade, for example) are very difficult to kasher – it is preferable not to use them for Pesach. (Please call me if you would like to kasher them.)
Clean very well. Many Ashkenazim are machmir to immerse them in boiling water.
Sofas, couches or chairs in the dining room or living room: Clean in all the crevices. This is an opportunity to find all sorts of long-lost possessions! 😉
Chametz less than a k'zayit - is not part of the prohibition:
Rooms into which chametz are not normally brought need not be thoroughly cleaned, as the chance of finding a piece of chametz the size of a k'zayit (around 3 centimeters or a little over a square inch) is improbable and even if one is found, the amount is negligible. Chametz which is less than this size may not be eaten, of course, but it is not included in the Torah prohibition of "bal yira'eh…", especially if one did bitul and/or has sold his chametz. Usually, only rooms into which people bring sandwiches, cookies, and similar chametz are likely to contain such big pieces of chametz. No need to clean books that are usually not brought to the table. If you do happen to find crumbs in your books during Pesach just get rid of it and do not eat it. Clothes, bags, and purses do not need to be cleaned for chametz unless you know that you stash chametz in your pockets and purses. Cabinets without food need not be cleaned. All areas that will not be used on Pesach should be cleaned enough that big pieces of chametz will not be found there. (Remember not to go crazy! 😊 )
The kitchen is the most important place to clean. Clean well so that there are no crumbs (even less than a k'zayit) of chametz left.
Refrigerator and freezer
Once cleaned thoroughly you can place Pesach food directly on the shelves.
Dishes, shelves, and drawers that will not be used on Pesach may be sealed after you make sure there are no pieces of chametz the size of k'zayit in them. OvenClean well before kashering. Turn the oven on to its highest heat for half an hour. The racks must be cleaned well with soap or a caustic type of oven cleaner beforehand.For self-cleaning ovens (500 degrees Celsius) it's enough to put the racks in the oven during the cleaning.The oven pans: it is preferable to use ones for Peasch or even "chad pa'ami" but based on what we learned according to scientific research one can kasher these pans by hag'ala.Stove/Cooktop (burners): On a self-cleaning oven the burners can be kashered simultaneously with the oven by putting the parts into the oven instead of cleaning separately. For a non-self-cleaning oven , the burners should be thoroughly cleaned and gone over lightly with a torch or by turning the fire on for about 20 minutes. Electrical (קרמי) burners: clean well, dry and spill boiling water over them. Put all burners on for 15 minutes. Induction stove : Clean well and dry. Put an empty pot (or a pot filled with water that has not been used for over 24 hours) and heat the stove on its top temperature for 30 minutes. The knobs should be cleaned well on all ovens and stoves.Microwave ovenClean the microwave thoroughly and do not use for 24 hours. Then boil a cup of water on the highest setting until the water boils for about 2-3 minutes. If the microwave was used in the past 24 hours put a bit of soap in the glass of water. Do not attempt to cool the glass with cold water immediately after. It will shatter. Wait for it to cool down first. The glass plate should be replaced, or cleaned and kashered with boiling water poured on both sidesSinksChina /Porcelain/Corian sinks: These sinks should be cleaned well. During pesach use a sink insert or a dishpan that is placed in the sink.You can put your dishes directly into the sink (after it has been cleaned thoroughly) if you only use water that is 45 degrees Celsius (113 Fahrenheit) or lower. Stainless steel : Clean the sink thoroughly and dry it. Pour boiling hot water from a Pesach kettle/pot over every part of the stainless steel sink. The poured water must touch every part of the sink including the drain and the spout of the water faucet. Granite sinks can be kashered in the same manner as a stainless steel sink.
Countertops and WorkspaceCountertops made of granite may also be kashered using boiling water. Formica countertops should be cleaned and covered with a waterproof material or heavy-duty aluminum foil. Caesar Stone : there are many types of Ceaser Stone countertops. Some can’t tolerate heat, while others can. Clean well and use soap or bleach to clean all the cracks and crevasses. If you don't normally put anything hot on it, you do not need to cover the counter. If you do, you should cover it. For specific questions, feel free to contract me.Metal kettle and urn
If only used for water, clean well and dry. It is a good custom to fill it up with water and bring it to a boil.
If your medication cannot be found on the "Kosher for Pesach" list, you can take your medicine even if it is not kosher l'pesach, provided it does not have a flavor. If you have any doubts please contact me.
Toiletries (soaps, shampoos, creams, perfumes, and makeup):
Toiletries need not be kosher for pesach since the chametz in these products is considered unfit for animal consumption. Therefore, even though on Pesach one may not derive benefit from chametz, these products may be used because the chametz in them loses its chametz status even before Pesach begins.
Kitniyot: Many Ashkenazim do not eat kitniyot on Pesach.
However, Ashkenazim may eat:
Canola oil and oil produced from rapeseed (liftit) is permissible for Ashkenazim on Pesach, as well as soy oil, cottonseed oil and peanut oil.Peanuts, quinoa.Chocolate that says " "לאוכלי קטניות בלבד.Puddings that say "לאוכלי קטניות" can also be eaten by Ashkenazim (Rema).Bamba (made from peanuts) NOT from corn.
For other questions regarding kitniyot please contact me.
Please remember to clean your car 😊
Dentures should be cleaned thoroughly before Pesach.
Bedikat chametz must be performed in all the apartments that one owns, however the owner makes one beracha while keeping all the apartments in mind.If one performs bedikat chametz before י"ד בניסן a beracha is not recited.If one is staying at a hotel during Pesach, ask the mashgiach if a bedika was performed in the room. If only a regular cleaning of the room was done, but not a bedika, the guest must perform bedikat chametz in the room with a beracha.
RYO (052-603-9157), email@example.com